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Motivation: Meiosis — a two-stage process of sex cell division — is served by several hundreds of proteins. A part of them went to eukaryotes from prokaryotes, others appeared in first eukaryotes, and some proteins appeared de novo in multicellular eukaryotes. We compared the conservation of proteins involved in various processes occurring in meiosis.
Results: The conservations of five meiotic enzymes (MLH1, MRE11, MSH4, BRCA1, BRCA2) and three silencing markers (histone H2AX, SUMO1, ATR) were compared using a set of bioinformatics methods. Orthologs of these proteins from the proteomes of model species were compared, representing different lines of development of eukaryotes. Among the enzymes, the most conserved is MLH1, which provide correction of mismatch bases, and the least conserved are BRCA1 and BRCA2 repair enzymes which are present only in vertebrates. Among silencing proteins, histone H2AX is the most conserved one, playing the central part in the regulation of the transcription, in the repair and replication of DNA. The small protein SUMO1, which is involved in many cellular processes, is less conserved. ATR kinase in different species is similar only in the C-terminal part of the molecule.
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